Tag: Hacking

CTF

Server Message Block (SMB) Enumeration, Attack and Defence

Introduction

If you see a service with TCP port 445 open, then it is probably running SMB. SMB is used for file sharing services. You will also see it related to other protocols in its operation:

https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/openspecs/windows_protocols/ms-smb2/06451bf2-578a-4b9d-94c0-8ce531bf14c4

Checklist

Here is a check list of common things to check:

  • Can you enumerate the server version?
  • Can you enumerate shares?
  • What versions of the protocol are enabled?
  • Can you connect using anon bind?
  • Are there any known vulnerabilities?
  • Can you enumerate usernames?
  • Is SMB signing enabled?
  • Are there other hosts in the subnet that can be used?

Read more “Server Message Block (SMB) Enumeration, Attack and Defence”

Guides

Becoming a Cyber Criminal (Pro) – Basic External Attacks

This is an experiment to combine a near real time thread on twitter and a blog… I have no idea if this will work. The premise is, we are conducting a adversary simulation against a target and want to see how this translates into a ‘plain language’ blog/story about how these things work. (I’ve also not included sales/scoping/documentaiton and clearly not all of this is in real time) but it is real!

The Fundamental Steps

Ok so first thing is first – the criminal part is a joke! We are here to help people. What we are going to do however is consider the general cyber threat landscape, look at the organisation from an ‘external threat actor’ perspective and then see what we can map out from an attack surface point of view.

Read more “Becoming a Cyber Criminal (Pro) – Basic External Attacks”
Defense

Password Spraying/Credential Stuffing OWA with Metasploit Framework

Ok so this is not very ‘1337’ but it will get the job done (and that is what is important, no one cares how they get pw3d they just care they were). If you really wanted, you could hand craft this in python of another language or use another tool (script etc.)

Do start with we are going to need a username list and a password list (as well as a target IP or DNS name). This could be:

  • Obtained via OSINT
  • Obtained via stolen/breached credentials
  • Dictionary Created
  • Password Lists could be used/generated etc.

We also need to have considerations for account lockouts. If we are doing a penetration test, then we will have to likely avoid DoS. If we are doing a ‘RED TEAM’ or adversary simulation, then we will want to avoid being noisy and getting caught. (If we are doing monitoring and detection testing you probably want to be quiet and noisy ala control testing). Read more “Password Spraying/Credential Stuffing OWA with Metasploit Framework”

Defense

ProxyLogon (CVE-2021-26855) PoC and Metasploit Module Released

The last two weeks we’ve seen major activity around the world with defenders and criminals rushing to respond to the recent zero day vulnerability patches and then the race to reverse engineer the kill chain to create an explot. We saw a PoC fairly early but it required that you reverse engineer some exchange DLLs and/or TAP the 443 to 444 interface on an exchange server to work out how to weaponise it. Things however have progressed, 8 hours ago we saw a metasploit module go online:

Read more “ProxyLogon (CVE-2021-26855) PoC and Metasploit Module Released”
Breach

ProxyLogon – A god mode backdoor even when used…

Imagine

Imagine being able to read emails from any mailbox from a corporation! But everyone uses office 365… don’t they? Well ok even if that was the case (It’s not) then the RCE would come into play. An RCE into system level access to Exchange which is so heavily tied to active directory they are almost joined at the hip) is a killer foothold. However, you pain the scenarios they aren’t good!

All knowing and all powerful

Imagine if you could read everyone’s email! What could you do with this?

  • Steal IP
  • Steal data
  • Steal credentials
  • Extort, blackmail and bribe

The SSRF vulnerability enabling a threat actor to gain unauthenticated read access to mailboxes would be a killer tool for both nation state spies and criminals alike. Read more “ProxyLogon – A god mode backdoor even when used with READ only”

CTF

How to enable NULL Bind on LDAP with Windows…

History of NULL bind

Back in the early Active Directory days NULL bind was actually enabled by default, these days you can get a rootDSE NULL bind out of the box but on Windows Server 2019 you can even disable this!

So why would I want to enable NULL bind? Well, some legacy apps may need it but generally speaking you don’t want NULL bind enabled.

The lesson here is DO NOT copy what I am doing here! Simples! Read more “How to enable NULL Bind on LDAP with Windows Server 2019”

Guides

Hacking 101

Back in 2019 I started to make some materials to help people with some basic offensive security techniques. I made three eppisodes of training materials. Well I’ve decided to re-release these, they haven’t really been changed but I’ve updated a few graphics on episode 3 and removed a link to Cain and Abel because it’s no longer maintained. I will probably go through these at some point and re-factor them.

I’ve got more documents on active directory security, I’ve actually written hundreds of pages on the subject but the challenge I’ve had is there is just so much to write, so I’ve decided I’m going to chunk it up into small blogs on a specific technique or area.

Read more “Hacking 101”
Defense

WordPress Security Considerations

WordPress is one of the most popular content management systems in the world today. I believe it is about 35% of the market share globally. That is a lot of sites.

I have been using WordPress for years myself; some people give it some stick for being vulnerable but that is usually them referring to third party plugins. I like it because you can build a site easily, without having to spend ages and you can deploy it and migrate etc. without having a huge headache. Read more “WordPress Security Considerations”

Defense

Retrieving Passwords From Veeam Backup Servers

Firstly before we get into recovering passwords from the veeam servers we have to think why is this technique so important to know?

It’s not what you think, so if you are a red teamer/penetration tester then sure you are going to want to know this to support your goals. But the real value in knowing this is to drive home a specific message.

DO NOT (PRODUCTION) DOMAIN JOIN BACKUP SERVERS

Veeam expicitly suports not being on a domain for this very reason. Why Dan? Why is it so important to not (PRODUCTION) domain join them? Well my friends, if a threat actor gets into your network, gains high priviledge access to active directory and get’s onto you veeam server they will probably disrupt and destroy your backup just prior to ransoming everyhing they can. You do no want this!

Read more “Retrieving Passwords From Veeam Backup Servers”