Category: Guides

Guides

Linux 101 for Windows People

Introduction

I come from a heavy Windows background, in fact I started my computer experience on an Amstrad however not long after I was using DOS and then Windows 3.11 for Workgroups. So, I’m a heavy Windows head, I’ve deployed all kinds of services and applications within business environments using common technologies such as:

  • CISCO/DELL/HP Networking switches and routers
  • ISA/TMG/UAG/Checkpoint firewalls
  • Palo Alto Firewalls
  • Microsoft Windows Client (Windows 3.11-Windows 11)
  • Microsoft Windows Server (NT4 – Windows Server 2022)
  • Vmware vSphere/ESXi
  • Random Linux Security appliances and VPN devices

One thing that I’ve noticed in my travels so far is that Linux deployments in enterprise environments in the back office/corp nets are often appliance based or “black boxes”. This creates a bit of a fun scenario whereby some system administrators and operations teams aren’t particularly comfortable with using UNIX/Linus systems. So, I thought I’d try and write some content to show how to do common tasks using the command line interface (CLI). This isn’t designed as an indepth guide, this is really just to try and give people a view of some of the things that you will need to be aware of. This isn’t mean’t to be “academic” or replace manuals and technical docs so it’s brief and to the point (as far as that is possible). Read more “Linux 101 for Windows People”

Defense

Creating a honeypot for CVE-2021-41773 (Path Traversal and RCE)

A path traversal vulnerability and exploit just dropped in the wild for a specific version of Apache (Apache/2.4.49). This vulnerability allows an unauthenticated attacker to execute a path traversal attack (and now shown RCE if MOD_CGI is enabled) to read files outside of the virtual directory path bounds. This only affects a single version of Apache, there’s a fair few of these online, however it’s very unlikely all are vulnerable. The vulnerability requires specific permissions to be configured.

A screenshot of a video game

Description automatically generated with medium confidence

Read more “Creating a honeypot for CVE-2021-41773 (Path Traversal and RCE)”

Guides

Reporting an email as phishing in Office 365 with…

Did you ever just ignore or delete a phishing email? I mean that’s great in one sense that you won’t have any negative impact. But if the email did get past the mail security filters, you can report it using the “Mark as phishing” option.

What if as well you wanted to not only enable users to report but also pass the intelligence onto the NCSC Suspicious Email Reporting Service (SERS)? How cool would that be! Well, have no fear people, we are going to show you how easy this stuff is to deploy and configure. Read more “Reporting an email as phishing in Office 365 with NCSC SERS”

Guides

mRr3b00ts Pentest Plus Study Notebook

I created a PDF notebook a while ago when I decided on a whim to to the Pentest+. I have quite a few people ask me about getting into cyber security and well, you know when I was younger this stuff was just called IT mainly (IT + Infosec) so I thought let’s go test out the Pentest+. I did the course and exam in a week (whilst writing the notebook) (don’t think that’s a good idea but my objectives were more to make sure if I think it’s any good or not). Pleased to say I thought the course was good (I used pluralsight at 1.x speed) and the exam was fun (for an exam).

Hopefully this helps people explore the some of the world of offensive security and appsec. Read more “mRr3b00ts Pentest Plus Study Notebook”

Defense

Cloud Security – 26 Foundational Security Practises and Capabilities…

That is quite the catchy title don’t you agree? Ok so that needs some work and when we think about cloud security, we need to realise that Computing as a Service isn’t a silver bullet.

One Cloud to Rule them all and in the darkness bind them

Ok so the cloud was promised as the saviour of IT and Cyber security but the promise vs the reality. Well, let’s be frank, they don’t really match up. But have no fear – secure cloud design is here (omg cringe)! Ok now we have that out of my system let’s look at some basic cloud security considerations to make when thinking about cloud services.

Checklist

Ok so the world doesn’t work with a checklist however, if you are like me you will want to use lists and aides to jog the little grey cells into action. Let’s think about cloud services and security: Read more “Cloud Security – 26 Foundational Security Practises and Capabilities Checklist”

Defense

CVE-2021-22005 – vCenter RCE

Introduction

Protecting admin interfaces is a really good idea, network segmentation however is one thing that many organisations struggle with. Most networks are what we call flat. They may be carved up into VLANs but generally speaking, in a lot of networks if you are “inside” then you have full access across the TCP/IP space.

Now here we are talking about the internal attack surface, so a threat actor would need network routable access which should not be the case for things like vcenter interfaces from the internet, however it appears that’s not really exactly how the world works.

Let’s look in Shodan! Read more “CVE-2021-22005 – vCenter RCE”

Defense

Defending against authentication attacks

Ok so my most popular blog on pwndefend is about using Hydra… so I guess that’s all the goodies using it for good things, right? Probably not but it does help people understand the weaknesses of single factor authentication systems without supplementary controls.

So, let’s look at authentication defences, but let’s do this from an attacker perspective! (The opposite of what helps an attacker usually helps defend). Crazy madness right, let’s get to it!

Foundations of Sand

Ok so authentication is a key security control in computer systems. To understand the challenge around authentication and think it’s all a technical problem is to error.

See most modern computer systems require at least two things to authenticate:

  • A Username
  • A Password

Read more “Defending against authentication attacks”

Defense

Exchange Emergency Mitigation Service with new CU Update

This is a big thing in the Exchange world from my POV! I believe this is dropping sometime today (28th September!)

History

Exchange OWA, ECP etc. are exposed online not only for mailbox access, calendar sharing but also are a requirement for hybrid mode sync capabilities.

Vulnerabilities in Exchange this year (ProxyLogon/ProxyShell) have shown how problematic an attack surface this is. The good news is, Microsoft have created a feature for Exchange to help mitigate these attacks in the future via the EM Service!

Read more “Exchange Emergency Mitigation Service with new CU Update”
Defense

Cyber Security Tips – Keeping your digital self, safe!

Not even most of my digital life is in the enterprise security space, whilst this is great if you have access to technology budgets, security specialists and modern business class solutions, this doesn’t really fit into the general populations landscape of technology. I thought I’d take a high-level exploration of what digital security looks for people who aren’t security nerds! This is a bit of an experiment for me as it’s a journey into a world where although some things apply to me (obviously I’m human), some of this from a thinking/blogging point of view aren’t my comfort space. So, let’s see what a world outside of being a nerd look like!

Commons Risks

I’m thinking the risk landscape is still broad however when we think about risks, I reckon a general view model may look at some of the following scenarios:

  • Fraud/Scams
  • Sextortion
  • Phishing
  • Social Media Account Takeover
  • Device Theft
  • Device Loss
  • Equipment Failure/Data Loss
  • Threat from known individuals with physical access
  • Human Error

Read more “Cyber Security Tips – Keeping your digital self, safe!”

Guides

Cyber Security Design Review

Purpose

To conduct a solution review we need to consider multiple perspectives. Cyber security can be described as (from the NCSC):

“Cyber security’s core function is to protect the devices we all use (smartphones, laptops, tablets and computers), and the services we access – both online and at work – from theft or damage. It’s also about preventing unauthorised access to the vast amounts of personal information we store on these devices, and online.”

Cyber Security is concerned with risks, threats, vulnerabilities, and controls. This really means the breadth and depth of cyber security is vastly wide and terribly deep. Read more “Cyber Security Design Review”