Tag: cyber

CTF

mRr3b00t Learns to play HTB again!

I rarely get a chance to play HTB these days 🙁 but today I thought i’d get back on it.. then I had a three hour battle with a graphics driver and Vmware Workstation so that basically ruined that idea…. but I thouht I’d try and remember how to CTF again.. and boy do you get slow fast! Well to try and help people and myself I’ve started to write down some notes to get my mind back into the CTF world of HTB!

Setup & Scope

Ok this is the setup phase. Let’s grab the details

  • Take note of the machine name
    • Remember most boxes are called .htb or .htb.local
    • There’s not an “internet” dns inside the arena so you need to update hosts files
  • Take note of the box author
    • This is useful for OSINT
  • Take note of the IP
    • This is your scope
  • Take note of the OS version
  • Get you digital notebook ready
Read more “mRr3b00t Learns to play HTB again!”
Defense

Cyber Defence is Hard

Introduction

If you read a book about management theory or specifically cyber security management you will find lots of frameworks, methods, formulas, models etc. None of them really let you know how insanely hard it can be to defend a moving target where regardless of how many controls you have, all it takes it someone doing something which may seem bonkers to you but perfectly reasonable for them. Their objective is to do business in an efficient manner, your objective is to protect the business in an efficient manner. Fundamentally these two things are not at odds, but there are a lot of human factors that come into play on top of some serious technical challenges. Read more “Cyber Defence is Hard”

Defense

Modern Workspace: PowerShell OAuth Error

Create PowerShell Session is failed using OAuth

When connecting to Exchange online (there was a reason I needed to do this) I had the following error:

I did some googling that luckily someone has already posted how to fix this:

https://www.vansurksum.com/2021/03/11/create-powershell-session-is-failed-using-oauth-when-using-the-exchange-online-v2-powershell-module/

It turns out WINRM’s ability to use BASIC client authentication is disabled as part of the standard Windows 10 hardening baseline deployed via Intune.

To fix these we need to re-enable BASIC client side WINRM authentication. Read more “Modern Workspace: PowerShell OAuth Error”

Guides

Becoming a Cyber Criminal (Pro) – Basic External Attacks

This is an experiment to combine a near real time thread on twitter and a blog… I have no idea if this will work. The premise is, we are conducting a adversary simulation against a target and want to see how this translates into a ‘plain language’ blog/story about how these things work. (I’ve also not included sales/scoping/documentaiton and clearly not all of this is in real time) but it is real!

The Fundamental Steps

Ok so first thing is first – the criminal part is a joke! We are here to help people. What we are going to do however is consider the general cyber threat landscape, look at the organisation from an ‘external threat actor’ perspective and then see what we can map out from an attack surface point of view.

Read more “Becoming a Cyber Criminal (Pro) – Basic External Attacks”
Defense

Checking for Hafnium or other groups impact from Exchange…

Introduction

On March 2nd, 2021 at ~6pm GMT Microsoft released an out of band update to all version of exchange from 2010 through to 2019. This was in response to a range of vulnerabilities which had been abused (a 0-day) by a threat actor (coined by MS as HAFNIUM).

For more info from MS please see the following:

https://www.microsoft.com/security/blog/2021/03/02/hafnium-targeting-exchange-servers/

Key CVEs

Key CVES include:

CVE-2021-26855, CVE-2021-26857, CVE-2021-26858, and CVE-2021-27065. Read more “Checking for Hafnium or other groups impact from Exchange Abuse”

Defense

The grass is always greener, until it is not

A PwnDefend Story – Day 7

It is a blur so far, I figured after the last place the grass would be greener, surely no one else has that many security challenges. I did some due diligence during the interview process, they seemed very confident about having certifications and that they took security seriously. hell, that should have set some red flags off but even the cynical sometimes hope that it is as someone says.

I have started to work myself around the board and I am making friends with people, my diary is filled with zoom calls and my notebook is already many pages deep.

You cannot make this stuff up though, day two and I’ve dealing with a business email compromise incident, the phishing page was not even in good English but then it only takes a second or so whilst in a meeting to not quite realise your running on autopilot so you cannot blame people. Hell, the branding was copied so we know it was a targeted phish. It would have been nice to at least had centralised logs for the team to analyse though. Read more “The grass is always greener, until it is not”

CTF

How to enable NULL Bind on LDAP with Windows…

History of NULL bind

Back in the early Active Directory days NULL bind was actually enabled by default, these days you can get a rootDSE NULL bind out of the box but on Windows Server 2019 you can even disable this!

So why would I want to enable NULL bind? Well, some legacy apps may need it but generally speaking you don’t want NULL bind enabled.

The lesson here is DO NOT copy what I am doing here! Simples! Read more “How to enable NULL Bind on LDAP with Windows Server 2019”

Defense

Threat Modelling 101

What is a threat?

https://csrc.nist.gov/glossary/term/threat

According to those clever people at NIST it is:

“Any circumstance or event with the potential to adversely impact organizational operations (including mission, functions, image, or reputation), organizational assets, or individuals through an information system via unauthorized access, destruction, disclosure, modification of information, and/or denial of service. Also, the potential for a threat-source to successfully exploit a particular information system vulnerability.” Read more “Threat Modelling 101”

Defense

WordPress Security Considerations

WordPress is one of the most popular content management systems in the world today. I believe it is about 35% of the market share globally. That is a lot of sites.

I have been using WordPress for years myself; some people give it some stick for being vulnerable but that is usually them referring to third party plugins. I like it because you can build a site easily, without having to spend ages and you can deploy it and migrate etc. without having a huge headache. Read more “WordPress Security Considerations”