The last two weeks we’ve seen major activity around the world with defenders and criminals rushing to respond to the recent zero day vulnerability patches and then the race to reverse engineer the kill chain to create an explot. We saw a PoC fairly early but it required that you reverse engineer some exchange DLLs and/or TAP the 443 to 444 interface on an exchange server to work out how to weaponise it. Things however have progressed, 8 hours ago we saw a metasploit module go online:Read more “ProxyLogon (CVE-2021-26855) PoC and Metasploit Module Released”
Imagine being able to read emails from any mailbox from a corporation! But everyone uses office 365… don’t they? Well ok even if that was the case (It’s not) then the RCE would come into play. An RCE into system level access to Exchange which is so heavily tied to active directory they are almost joined at the hip) is a killer foothold. However, you pain the scenarios they aren’t good!
All knowing and all powerful
Imagine if you could read everyone’s email! What could you do with this?
- Steal IP
- Steal data
- Steal credentials
- Extort, blackmail and bribe
The SSRF vulnerability enabling a threat actor to gain unauthenticated read access to mailboxes would be a killer tool for both nation state spies and criminals alike. Read more “ProxyLogon – A god mode backdoor even when used with READ only”
With the Hafnium “incidents” and Exchange vulnerabilities I wanted to help people with ruling in or out compromise of their Exchange 2010 environments. At the time of writing, I don’t believe that Hafnium affected Exchange 2010 via the reported kill chain, I believe that BEC would be required but this is a theory, my general view is Exchange 2010 might be ‘safe’ from this kill chain. This is due to the initial stage leveraging CVE-2021-26855 which is an SSRF vulnerability which only affectes the new architecture (2013+). However, this is an unsupported platform so I wanted to help with some baselines and talk about how I would approach ruling compromise in or out (at least with regards to these vulnerabilities). The key impact area is a web shell. I’ve made some baselines to help people look for abnormalities.
This document was made with limited time and without full Whitebox access to source code and engineering expertise. The areas we are checking for IOCs appear to make logical sense, but the OS and APP (Exchange 2010) are unsupported, and we are not the vendor. So, I am afraid your hunting responsibility is on you, this is just my opinions and thoughts from a very fast analysis. Use at your own risk. Read more “Exchange 2010 Rapid Analysis for IOCs”
History of NULL bind
Back in the early Active Directory days NULL bind was actually enabled by default, these days you can get a rootDSE NULL bind out of the box but on Windows Server 2019 you can even disable this!
So why would I want to enable NULL bind? Well, some legacy apps may need it but generally speaking you don’t want NULL bind enabled.
The lesson here is DO NOT copy what I am doing here! Simples! Read more “How to enable NULL Bind on LDAP with Windows Server 2019”
It’s called essentials it’s not called advanced!
Have you ever wondered what the absolute minimum you should do is to protect against cyber criminals? I’ll be honest I haven’t, that minimalistic approach to be seems kind of risky… BUT the world is not me and if you want to achive greatness you need a good foundation! So the essentials are good to know.Read more “Endpoint Security – The Essentials”
A quick snack
Everyone knows about cyber chef, right? Well, I can tell you now that my misses knows so if you don’t now’s a great time to get to know! Cyber Chef is a tool created by GCHQ distrubted via an apache license that’s hosted on GitHub or you can download and run locally. Read more “CyberChef Taster”
Back in 2019 I started to make some materials to help people with some basic offensive security techniques. I made three eppisodes of training materials. Well I’ve decided to re-release these, they haven’t really been changed but I’ve updated a few graphics on episode 3 and removed a link to Cain and Abel because it’s no longer maintained. I will probably go through these at some point and re-factor them.
I’ve got more documents on active directory security, I’ve actually written hundreds of pages on the subject but the challenge I’ve had is there is just so much to write, so I’ve decided I’m going to chunk it up into small blogs on a specific technique or area.Read more “Hacking 101”
Sensational Press or Cyber War Mongering?
I do not know Mr Martin, but I would assume that his role at NCSC and GCHQ would have given him a good insight into the realities of cybercrime, cyber terrorism, nation state affairs and how to effectively defend against cyber criminals (and other threat actors) so please read this blog as it is intended, it’s an analysis on the quoted statements and reporting style and general view of mine about current cyber war rhetoric, not an analysis of the person. Why am I writing this? Well, I am seeing an increased level of FUD, snake oil and cyber war rhetoric and I wanted to share some of my thoughts, opinions, and ideas in this space. For it is far too easy to call for war and in cyberspace do we even know what that means? Read more “Combating Cyber Crime: Should we really be charging to cyber war?”
Good practise is not always good practise
For years you might have heard to have a complex password you change regularly (like every 30 days to keep you safe from the hax0rs) but well… let us not lie, it is bloody terrible advice.
Password cracking, brute force attacks, credential stuffing and well mad human things like writing passwords down on post it notes under keyboards are hugely prevalent still. The other day I managed to see a password used on a corporate system which was “Thursday49”. Yep, I know I know we all know that a weak easily guessable, easily crack able password is not a good idea yet honestly, humans like things that work and are simple vs remember their 6 favourite books in reverse order with a complex character and capital letter. Read more “Password Managers – The Good the Bad and the Ugly”
Firstly before we get into recovering passwords from the veeam servers we have to think why is this technique so important to know?
It’s not what you think, so if you are a red teamer/penetration tester then sure you are going to want to know this to support your goals. But the real value in knowing this is to drive home a specific message.
DO NOT (PRODUCTION) DOMAIN JOIN BACKUP SERVERS
Veeam expicitly suports not being on a domain for this very reason. Why Dan? Why is it so important to not (PRODUCTION) domain join them? Well my friends, if a threat actor gets into your network, gains high priviledge access to active directory and get’s onto you veeam server they will probably disrupt and destroy your backup just prior to ransoming everyhing they can. You do no want this!Read more “Retrieving Passwords From Veeam Backup Servers”